EDPT 2220 – Learning & Teaching
Micro-Teaching Reflection Task
Knowing a word
In our lessons at the college we were exposed to different types of factors which involve knowing the words meanings. These factors should be taken into account when exposing students to new words. The factors are:
· Meaning of the word (semantic)
To consider knowing not only what the word refers to, but how students can separate the word from another words with close meaning, e.g. laugh, giggle. This also involves knowing the meaning of it when it is used with other words which will form a close related meaning (head: of a person, of a pin, of an organization). – and this last part is one of the major causes of confusion.
· Grammar (syntactic)
Teaching the students the rules which apply to the word will help them to build up different forms of the same word or even different words from the same word (able, unable, disability). And making sure that the form of the word in the sentence is taught. So, we don’t just teach ‘drill’. We teach ‘to drill (v)’ and ‘a drill (n)’.
· How it is pronounced (phonological)
To make sure that students won’t mix-up words with words which have the same pronunciation, but different spellings and meanings (flour, flower). Is this example orthographic since the spelling is different but the pronunciation is the same?
Ok, there is some thing wrong here. I believe the explanation above is more likely to explain the orthographic.
This is what phonological means:
Pronunciation is an important aspect to know when learning words. This is the same when we tell rhymes to a child. This helps her/him to hear the similarities and differences in the words’ sounds. S/he then will understand the sounds they hear. Later the child will try to produce some rhymes and new words on their own. This also can be applied to students when they hear their teacher pronouncing the words in a correct way. This will give the opportunity to the students to practice the pronunciation of these words by using them on their own.
Students try to read their first words with their teachers at school by learning the different sounds.
Careful here. You are straying into L1 and primary pedagogy with its basis in phonics that looks at sound before spelling and builds orthographic recognition into the child’s learning much later.
As more as the students practice this they will start to recognize the familiar words easily and quickly. The main aspect of this process is to give the students the opportunity to learn how to read correctly and to improve their ability of recognizing the different sounds of words. In order to learn how to read and understand the text, students have to be aware of phonemes.
As above, this has to be qualified, but we are moving well away from our area of focus into a near Masters-level discussion J
To teach phonological understanding to the students we have to start by showing them the relationships between the parts of the sentence. Then show them how to breakdown the sentence into words. This will show them how the sentence is formed. When the students understand the parts of the sentence, teachers would expose them to the words level.
You are moving into language teaching and doing it incorrectly. Sentence level learning takes place long after words and this is a purely syntactic discussion here.
This will be by introducing words’ syllables. At the end, let them practice a phoneme task by modelling a specific sound and asking the students to produce that sound in several words.
The build up is normally the other way around J
It is very important that teachers pronounce the correct sounds so it won’t affect the students’ pronunciation negatively.
This is true in language classes J
· How it is spelled (orthographic)
Graphic form of English words can’t always be guessed by the pronunciation or rules. Some English words do not spell according to their pronunciation (e.g. wrong, island, Wednesday). Indicating that often orthographic and phonological elements are closely merged and should be taught together.
· Other grammar information about it, form of it / shades of meaning (morphological) Which is in fact your example above.
Distinguishing the different meanings that synonymous words have, e.g. extend, increase, expand.
· The thinking behind it (cognitive)
Teachers should use vocabulary teaching techniques which will provide cognitive approach to their students. In different words, make it possible for the students to use the words actively. Especially in the triggering of new and expanding networks.
· The meaning from the society (cultural)
Teachers must distinguish the word emotional factors which depend on the dialog attitude and culture to understand the correct meaning of the word.
· Self meaning of the word (autobiographical)
Teachers should provide their students with activities which will correct their autobiographical words to the correct meanings. And allow students to develop their own autobiographical meanings for words – this is the first true sign of a move into native-like L2.
Active & passive vocabulary
The students’ vocabulary can be divided into two groups which are passive vocabulary and active vocabulary. Passive vocabulary is the words which the students understand when they read or listen to, but they can not use or remember in their speaking or writing. On the other hand, active vocabulary is all the words students understand and they can use by themselves.
Teaching new words
Teachers must work on their students’ vocabulary learning. They have to apply the methods, which are listed above, in order to change the passive vocabulary to become part of the students’ active vocabulary. These methods will create the vocabulary network that will help the students to make use of their mental lexicon (where the words are stored in our mind by their meanings & forms). This will make the search procedure faster in mental lexicon.
The list above are factors we have to consider, not teaching methods. We need to consider teaching methods and activities that can trigger these factors. So, from your experience this semester, what activities would you list?
There is a list in the next paragraphJ I noticed J
Recycling vocabulary & techniques will help students to remember new words
Recycling vocabulary is an important aspect to consider when students are learning new words. Students are in need to see the new word many times before they can use it and include it in their active vocabulary. In my classes, students will have the opportunity to learn new vocabulary throughout the subjects which I will present to them. It will be wise to encourage my students to revise the new vocabulary in order to memorize it and start using the new words confidently. There are good strategies to help my students to remember new words. Some of these strategies are:
· Ask the students to write the words in a notebook with their definitions and translations.
· Ask them to create word/definition cards (these cards will have the new words on the front and on the back they will have the translation of the words in their own language, definitions of the words or gap sentences).
· Ask them to put the word in different groups.
· Ask them to create a personal dictionary using computer technology. In this dictionary they will use the 8 types of vocabulary records which I learned during this semester and for sure it will be explained to my students.
· Make association by using pictures and synonyms.
· Encourage them to use the new words in their own speaking or writing.
· Give my students quick vocabulary quizzes which will involve the new words.
A nice list which answers my earlier question JJ
While planning this mini-teaching I asked myself these questions:
Why do I need a presentation stage in my lesson?
I need this stage to explain the aim of the lesson, so my learners will understand what they are going to learn and why they need to learn it. Also in this stage I need to present a skill that my students are in need to learn and understand it. Students need to know what they are going to learn, how they will learn it and why they will learn it in this way. A good presentation stage must be well clarified, understandable and interesting. To make my lesson an interesting lesson I can use different techniques such as songs, games or stories.
Yes. Students have a need to learn and are involved in the process J
Why do I need a practice stage?
I need the practice stage because students need to use or practice the skills they learned in the presentation stage. Teachers must help their students in this stage by using different techniques such as whiteboard, pictures, video, text or actions which will remind them of specific skills, structures and meaning. As in the presentation stage, teachers can help the students by correcting their mistakes if they are important.
Why do I need a Production stage?
This stage is to motivate the students to connect the new skill with their knowledge by giving them a chance to experiment with this skill. As it was in my presentation when they opened the HDD to see the parts they underlined and discussed. In this stage teachers usually don’t correct their students, but support them by observing and monitoring them. Also it will be useful to give a feedback on their strengths and weaknesses of their task at the end of the lesson.
Are PPP important in all my lessons?
No. Presentation, practice and production stages are not important to have them all in each lesson because if my students know already the subject I would not need to present it to them. Also the production stage can be delayed to the end of the course where the students can practice every thing they learned in a real life field.
Yes. We can play with the PPP construct as much as we like to promote more effective student learning J
My mini-teaching reflection
Reading task – on Internet.
Is this on your site?
Yes, it is on my course web-page.
Skim – read fast. Underline the parts you do not know the ‘shape’? Is this instruction clear? What do you mean by ‘shape’?
Well, I can tell it is a fact that my instruction wasn’t clear. Your question itself is evidence that it wasn’t clear.
In another words, if my instruction was clear you would understand it. When I said, “Underline the parts you don’t know the shape of it”, what I meant by ‘shape’, was how the part looked like because they would then see it in the next stage where they will open the HDD.
Wasn’t clear though. Think about using 3-word instruction cards J
This 3-word instruction cards were discussed in my 6th entry, but you never told me what it means so can you give me some information about it? What I know about the teachers’ instructions is that teachers design instruction for specific learning goals, students’ characteristics & needs, and learning contexts.
I have mentioned them in several journals with different members of the class. I am desperately waiting for someone to ask me in class so I don’t have to try and explain 10 times in the journals. Can you raise the question on Saturday and I will demonstrate J Thanks J
5 minutes to read. Good time but I think you need to remind them every minute:
I like the number of pictures within the text. Very reader friendly J
This text was selected very carefully bearing in mind the students’ level of English.
Exercise & Activity
In this stage my exercise was to expose the students to the different parts of the HDD and I achieved this aim with the reading activity.
Good to see you give the students space and just check they are “reading”. Make sure you use the word “skimming” as you talk to them – it just emphasizes your initial instruction J
Think about the students. They will be asking themselves; “Why am I reading this?”
Set a task even if it is very simple.
For example: “Circle 5 parts you find inside the computer.”
I completely agree with you. This type of task would be better for the students because they would be reading for a purpose which is circling 5 parts of a HDD.
Keep this up your sleeve and try it next semester J
Great movement to the front desk as they finish and I like how you use the first student to give instructions. What are they doing?
Discussing what they have underlined. “How much have they underlined?”
In this stage I used the first student who finished the reading to give the instructions so I will pay attention to the other students who were still reading. The task for them was to discuss what they underlined and to explain the underlined words to each other. This worked without interference from me as a teacher.
And worked well J
I think for this text and realia, the underlining is not appropriate. The circle 5 parts would be a more appropriate lead-in to the realia.
Realia – what a great motivator J
The class set up for this stage is brilliant with the fastest reader leading the discussion.
I like how you sit back J
What notes were you taking?
I was taking notes of the parts they covered in their discussion and the parts they didn’t so I will cover them at the end of the discussion. I was listening to them discussing the parts to make sure that their information was correct. This part was important for me as a teacher because it was my feedback of how much the students learned from the text.
How many parts did they NOT discuss?
Only two parts and they were able to answer my questions in the feedback which shows me how much they understood from the reading task.
After presenting this mini-teaching I thought about the flow of the Present, Practice, Production lesson (PPP). This flow in the lesson is an important aspect to pay attention to while planning a lesson. In this part of my journal I will write about the flow of the PPP in a vocabulary lesson.
First, the teacher will present the vocabulary in a very clear context to clarify to the students the meanings so that the aim of this stage is to expose students to new information. This could be done in different ways: through a reading task, a situation, a dialogue, a listening task etc. The teacher’s roles in the presentation stage are explainer, knower, general, organizer, evaluator and corrector. There are more roles to be rolled in the presentation stage, but it depends on the way the stage is presented. Usually students will be recipients, audience and vessel in this stage.
Not sure I agree with the vessel idea. I think we have got to the point that we realise the dry presentation with empty vessels does not encourage learning. We need active recipients and participants in our presentation stages.
There are some important aspects to bear in mind while planning a presentation stage which are:
· What do students know already?
· How can I find out? (by using TTT approach)
· Never present what the students already know.
The teacher can know that his presentation stage was effective by only one way which is the interaction of the students otherwise he must run a practice or a production stage to find out how effective his presentation was.
Students then will be asked to do a controlled practice stage. In this stage they will have to repeat the skill they learned at the presentation stage by drilling, fill gaps, match, multiple choices, etc. This practice will insure that the students use the vocabulary correctly and will help them to become more confident in using it. The teacher will be monitor, adviser, involver, clarifier, conductor, evaluator and corrector while the students are participants, seekers and more involved in this stage. The main consideration of this stage is to place the students in an activity that enables them to practice the information previously presented. The teacher will know that his practice stage was effective by the students’ participation, interaction, answers, etc. Often in this stage the teacher will expect mistakes from his students, but he should think of ways of correcting them if these mistakes were not corrected during the practice stage and before the production stage.
Finally, the teacher would change to a production stage. Students will be asked to do a task such as a role play, writing, speaking, etc. the teacher would expect the students to produce the vocabulary which they have just learned and use any other vocabulary that they have learned before to support this stage. In different words, the teacher’s aim in this stage is to create an opportunity for the students to demonstrate and activate their knowledge of information in a real situation. The teacher will normally be an observer, facilitator, enabler, guider and evaluator while the students are activists, generators and players in this stage. Usually by the end of this stage students will have a feedback from their teacher. In this feedback, students will be able to correct the areas where they need to correct. The planning consideration of this stage is to create a real situation to give the students a chance to demonstrate their knowledge without the teacher intervention. Students’ reflections are the feedback for the teacher himself to know if his production stage was effective or not.
Yes J I like the student reflection and the feedback stage from the teacher. Both very important J
Great job J with just the one thought on the first reading task.
T. feedback = one thing you did not discuss was …..
My self assessment is 14 out of 15
Khaled A. Majid
Yes – I think that is fair J